Gelf Magazine - Looking over the overlooked

Nightlife | Science

July 26, 2007

Staying Awake by Switching Brain Hemispheres

New sleep-deprivation record holder Tony Wright tells Gelf he's altered his brain chemistry and thus can stay up indefinitely.

Adam Conner-Simons

On May 14, Tony Wright walked into the Studio Bar in Penzance, England. For 11 days and two hours, the long-haired horticulturist stayed there, playing pool, talking with other customers, and taking notes. One thing he didn't do, though, was sleep. When he finally left, he had broken the unofficial world record for sleep deprivation that has stood for more than 40 years.

Tony Wright
"I was frustrated that 99 percent of the coverage was. 'Crazy guy stays awake, blah blah blah.' Very few people wanted to know why I actually wanted to do it."

Tony Wright

Wright, 43, readily admits his feat was a PR stunt designed to drive interest in his radical theory about diet and brain development (and perhaps sell a few copies of his self-published book Left in the Dark). He claims that as humans have switched from our ancestral diet of fruits, vegetables and nuts, to our current meat- and fat-laden culture, we've lost access to important hormones that protect the left side of the brain during its development. As a result, Wright says, not only does the weak left-side of the modern human brain get tired out more quickly than it should, but the connection between the hemispheres is also damaged, meaning that we're not able to tap into our fully-charged right hemisphere when we get sleepy. Wright claims, by changing his diet and using meditative techniques, he is now able to switch over from his tired left hemisphere to his right, which he says can go several days without needing a recharge.

Even if his ideas seem far-fetched, it's hard to deny that he has done something that most of us—regardless of how many college all-nighters we pulled—can't even imagine. Gelf emailed with Wright to learn more about his theory, what he thinks of the media coverage of his feat, and what it's like to stay up for so damn long. The interview has been edited for clarity.

Gelf Magazine: How do you tire out the left hemisphere and make the switch to the right? Do you make conscious efforts through things like avoiding reading, etc.?

Tony Wright: Simply staying awake is sufficient, as my proposal is that the left hemisphere's batteries are effectively weak and cannot hold much charge, whereas the right hemisphere's batteries have much greater capacity. Talking will speed up tiring out the left, as it is one of the things it is dominant for.

GM: This wasn't the first time you had deprived yourself of sleep for experimental purposes. Why did you decide to try to break the world sleeplessness record?

TW: I've done at least a hundred experiments of at least 50 hours [of sleep deprivation] over the last 12 years, including some as long as seven or eight days. I was getting impatient. The history of new ideas is such that you usually have to wait until you're dead. I thought, "What can I do here to gain some attention for this theory?"
[For most people,] it's going to be difficult: some people get manic depressive, most people say they feel "trippy." Two or three days is as far as most can go. You can feel the change [in hemisphere concentration] cutting in after two days, where you slowly start feeling better—and there's even mild euphoria. Usually the whole process takes at least five days.

GM: You said that after five days or so, you felt completely normal. Do you think you could have kept going? If so, for how long?

TW: Well, it's difficult to say. Obviously 11 days was feasible. It's not really about longevity so much as the fact that the differential in sleep requirement due to damage and normal sleep keeps the damaged side dominant. However, I suspect with further experimentation it would be possible to keep going indefinitely, as the left hemisphere would simply shut down while consciousness switched to the right (a classic nirvana-type experience). It then re-awakens and consciousness returns to near normal. This appears to have happened on a number of occasions but needs further experimentation. Whatever sleep the right genuinely needs (and I do not know what this would be) could well be taken during "normal" left dominance.

GM: Did you talk to Randy Gardner—the previous sleeplessness record-holder—before your attempt?

TW: Yes, I did. He's been very polite during it all. In my initial correspondence, he was a bit fed-up about being known for just [the record]. When I finished, though, he emailed me to congratulate me.

GM: Gardner said exercise was the best thing to keep him awake. What did you do to keep yourself busy?

TW: Staying hydrated is important. During that initial period you are irritable, straining the part of your brain that's normally in charge. People get dysfunctional—I accept that. It's about getting through. Any activity you can do is great—listening to music, dancing, going for walks. Things that are rational like reading are OK for about 24 hours, but then they seem to take you to the most tired part of your brain. The key is just not sitting down and getting too comfortable. You come out the other side and end up less tired.

GM: You talked a lot about how hard it was to look at and use a computer. What made computer use so difficult? Do you have any idea why sleep deprivation has this kind of effect?

TW: I can only guess, really, that when staring at something banal and boring like a computer screen, it takes you to this tired place.

GM: What were your main physical symptoms during those 11 days? Did you experience any of the side effects that doctors traditionally link to sleep deprivation (dizziness, hallucinations, paranoia, mood swings, difficulty communicating or understanding others, etc.?)

TW: From the outset, I never claimed it would be clear sailing. There would be periods where I felt intense tiredness—in those windows I could feel quite irritable (which I expected). There were glimpses of altered states of consciousness. Because it was a PR exercise, I wanted to keep the lid on anything too weird; I didn't want to slip into states that could be perceived as psychosis.
The nearest I got to classic hallucination was on Day 9 or 10, when I noticed that the shape of the pool-ball seemed to be different. Basically my eyes were starting to work independently: I was getting a slight double-image.

GM: You mention mystics as people who have often been fascinated by sleep. Did you do any research on them for your project?

TW: I've certainly read around the subject of mystics. For example, there are living traditions in North and South America where they intentionally use sleep deprivation as a spiritual technique. One of the texts I first came across in my research was The Epic of Gilgamesh, the oldest surviving text from Babylon. The last challenge in the story is for Gilgamesh to stay awake for seven days and seven nights. There has always been an interest [in sleep deprivation].

"Because it was a PR exercise, I wanted to keep the lid on anything too weird; I didn’t want to slip into states that could be perceived as psychosis."
GM: Do you believe in the legends that mystics could stay awake for years at a time? TW: Possibly the fully functional neo-cortex may have evolved to a point where it could recharge as it operates. A few lucky people who are born with such left [hemisphere] damage that it just cannot dominate would have easier access to the enhanced abilities/experience of the right hemisphere and whatever its real sleep requirement is.

GM: The Guinness Book of World Records no longer recognizes sleeplessness feats because of health dangers. What do you think about that?

TW: I knew about this for 14 or 15 months. I had contacted Guinness, thinking they still would sanction the record. I wasn't too bothered about it—it would have been nice in a way, because I wanted to draw attention to my research—but I understand why.

GM: How do you respond to claims that the true record was not Randy Gardner's 264 hours but Finland's Toimi Soini's 276 hours in 1964 (London Times)?

TW: I'll be honest, I didn't know about all the other [records]. I was drawn to Gardner because of articles in the San Diego Reader, Gelf, and other media.

GM: A few years ago the British journal Occupational and Environmental Medicine found that drivers who have been awake 17 to 19 hours drive as poorly as legally drunk drivers (CNN). You yourself admitted that you had much difficulty keeping your eyes focused and using computers. After all that, do you still believe that "the brain does not become less effective with tiredness" (as you said in an interview with the Daily Mail)?

TW: I completely accept that there's a wave of dysfunction, but the whole point is getting beyond that. I think generally, it's less about how much sleep we need, and more about are we running on an inefficient neural system.

GM: What do you think of media coverage of your feat?

TW: I certainly didn't expect [coverage] to take off the way it did. Both my mobile and the bar's landline were ringing off the hook. But so much of it was very superficial. I was frustrated that 99 percent of the coverage was "Crazy guy stays awake, blah blah blah." Very few people wanted to know why I actually wanted to do it.

GM: How much did you sleep when you finally went to bed? Have your sleep patterns changed since the record?

TW: There was nothing astounding to report. After the 11-day run, I had about five-and-a-half hours of sleep. I woke up 30 minutes later for an interview. I felt back to normal—which is to say, as if I had been awake a day. I generally feel better and more-relaxed when I am sleep-deprived.

GM: Do you think your efforts generally have led to more awareness of your research?

TW: It's too early to say. I have more interest than I had before. There has been some follow-up stuff going on, but not a lot. To be honest, this is one of the more in-depth interviews I've had.
Last year I approached various sleep-research centers, but they didn't want to get involved and thought it was crazy. They dismissed it but wouldn't test it.

GM: Why do you think your views are controversial?

TW: I think it's a combination of things. People have so many preconceived notions about diet and food, that my diet is easily dismissed. Also, it's quite a radical theory—basically, that humans are currently dysfunctional because our brains don't develop. I view it in a positive light, as something that we can fix. I am driving a bulldozer through people's views. Then again, maybe it's because I look like a born-again hippie or something. I don't know.

Related on the Web; BBC Cornwall's photo gallery of Wright breaking the record.

Related in Gelf: Before Wright broke his record, Randy Gardner told us what it was like to be famous for staying awake for a long time.

Adam Conner-Simons

Adam Conner-Simons is a freelance journalist in Boston.

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- Science
- posted on Jul 27, 07

This is probably in the book, but I'll ask anyway. Why would lacking these hormones only damage one hemisphere of the brain? What is different about the physical makeup that would cause the asymmetry?

- Science
- posted on Jul 28, 07

Yes it is covered in the book, the left hemispheres sensitivity to testosterone seems increasingly evidenced, see for further information including the links to Professor Simon Baron-Cohen and Dr Darold Treffert.
The reason may have its origins in an archaic genetic adaptation i.e. there may have been a good reason for structural, functional and biochemical variation between the hemispheres. The model outlined in Left in the Dark proposes a neuroendocrine feed back loop effectively ironed out some of these genetic differences.

By progressively modulating the action of steroids (part of the DNA reading mechanism) their asymmetric effect on neural development was virtually eliminated. A bit like a genetic male developing as a female if there is a testosterone deficiency, add testosterone and the DNA blueprint will respond and build a male body (and brain). No change in DNA yet massive changes is structure, physiology and function by simply changing the way the code is read.

During the latter stages of neural expansion the asymmetric response remained locked in the neural DNA. The critical activity required to activate it was suppressed by the neuroendocrine system and similar chemical activity in the ancestral diet. Lose the inhibiting effects and the asymmetric response will re-emerge though in a new layer of neural tissue that had developed as a consequence of steroid modulation. This results in the foetal development of the newest and most advanced layer of the brain being retarded by the re emergence of a steroid regime that would have prevented its evolution in the first place. One side is significantly more affected than the other yet paradoxically it assumes control.

- Science
- posted on Sep 12, 07

He is indeed a Dumbass

- Science
- posted on Sep 13, 07

Have you considered trying to publish to a journal? Any one can write a book, it takes validity of theory to be published scientifically. Your theory seems sound. Any way to get a list of journal articles about this concept that you are citing or drawing from in support of your idea?

- Science
- posted on Sep 13, 07

Your theories are very possible, and I can say I am very intrested in more research on this subject. Please keep it up.

- Science
- posted on Sep 13, 07

An intriguing little theory. I'd like to see it expanded upon, but what I can gather from the interview, it seems as if that will not happen, unfortunately.

"Tom" and "Steve" show their lack of actual brain abilities by declaiming the theory without any reasoning. Immature response, not worthy of notice. To be expected, I suppose.

- Science
- posted on Sep 13, 07

WRONG. Tom and Steve are the only ones with brain abilities. SURE THE THEORY IS INTERESTING BUT IT IS ARBITRARY AS HELL AND THERE IS ABSOLUTELY NO EVIDENCE SUPPORTING IT. Also, fuck this guy for saying that our brains are dysfunctional. Right, because if my brain was functioning properly like his I would be trying to stay up for 11 days playing pool instead of accomplishing something. Also, what possible benefit would someone have by turning "off" the left side of their brain? OK, no more motor abilities or vision on the right side. ALSO, no more speech (at all). Sounds great. Thanks for wasting our time and getting morons to buy your books, Dumbass.

- Science
- posted on Sep 13, 07

also, I have a degree in neuroscience. So we could talk about this with evidence but I don't know why I am wasting my time on this type of garbage. Sigh, the internet is so wonderful but it is sad how easily people will accept information.

- Science
- posted on Sep 13, 07

ha ha dolphins do the same thing. they never really sleep, but rest one hemisphere of their brain at a time.

- Science
- posted on Sep 13, 07

If I had the choice - I'd not sleep ever again. At least somebody is looking into it - I think Tony has got something for some of us - but not for the dumb asses who can't just keep their mouths shut about somebody elses work - typical internet abusers.

- Science
- posted on Sep 13, 07
Sleep Technologist

As a sleep technologist, I am responsible for the scoring of sleep during medically necessitated sleep studies (Polysomnography.) Over the years, we have recorded many people where the two hemispheres of the brain sleep differentially. We have constructed a paradigm to experimentally test the hemispherality of sleep need. If interested, drop me a note.

- Science
- posted on Sep 13, 07
Reverand Randall

This is also something I have worked on but also concentrating on the reverse. Self induced catalepsy for purposes of healing the body from illness or injury. He is also right about water. Hydration is the key to dieting and mental work but becomes less important in sleep healing. One glass every day or two is sufficient for healing if you are not running a temperature. Water and classical music will allow prolonged work on the computer if you have at least three programs or research pieces going so that you alternate to avoid boredom.

- Science
- posted on Sep 14, 07

Wouldn't this be a hypothesis since this guy isn't a scientist and hasn't done any real testing of his idea?

- Science
- posted on Sep 14, 07

Okay, I personally view all of this as amazing;

Bob-o, shut the fuck up no one gives a shit what your so called degree in Neuroscience says, you're on the fucking internet and based on how you're speaking there is no way in hell that you could be a sophistically educated individual; if you disagree, that's fine but quit being a dick about

Scott, this would be a theory because a theory does not necessarily have to be tested and proven true because then it would not be a theory; The Theories of Evolution and Creation are both theories and not facts because despite what either argument may think, there isn't any real way to "experiment" with this; That doesn't mean that either can't be proven, since they are theories there are many ways that they could be proven or disproven...

- Science
- posted on Sep 16, 07

Dear mkylman,

I am a scientist through and through -- a BS in physics from MIT, a PhD in Genetics from UCB. By definition, theories cannot be proven, only disproven. I don't know enough neuroscience to say for sure, but I think that if you turned off your left hemisphere, most of us would not be able to speak. So I have some doubts. Publish in a peer reviewed journal, Tony.

- Science
- posted on Sep 17, 07

Hi Tom,

Quick question. Are you a Buddhist? I knew a guy once that was such, and you look a lot like him.

- Science
- posted on Sep 17, 07

this is fantastic. pushing the body to it's limits is how evolution works. sports people have their theories on how to get the best performance from their bodies, only usually that involves a lucky pair of socks - what's so unbelievable about this theory, now supported by result? I'd certainly be interested in a scientific analysis of the theory. Top marks that man - not sure if I'd buy a born-again hippie book though.

- Science
- posted on Sep 18, 07
Tony Wright

Having just been informed that there was some discussion on this forum thought I would add to the fun. The whole point of the event was to initiate some debate in the theory I have developed by giving the media what they like i.e. crazy guy stays awake etc.
Trying to evaluate an idea via the peer review route is certainly one option though to presume it is the only option is a little limited in my opinion. I’m very interested in feedback, comments and criticism though it might be helpful to have at least read the book or the references cited.
Here are a couple that I found interesting, not so much for the theories being presented but the observations used too support them. There are many more if anyone is seriously interested.

Very little of what I have proposed is novel, it simply a re-interpretation of the existing data In fact I would suggest that my proposal that our neural system is in trouble will be easy to dismiss as existing data would undoubtedly fit such a proposal. Obviously I think it does.
One thing is pretty clear to me, the untested assumption that our neural system is fully functional is poor science as it is the only piece of equipment we have to evaluate, conceptualise and experience ourselves and the world we inhabit. Perhaps it is absolutely fine and I am a dumbass, however it seems to me that it might be worth ruling out.

- Science
- posted on Sep 19, 07
random questioner

what type of long term memory effects will this have on memories gained during this exteneded period of being awake. More evidence is coming to light daily that dreams are related to how we store long-term memories. 1 example is people with multiple personality disorders frequently one personality cannot remeber what any of the others has done, nor can it remeber anything the other personalities learned... until they sleep, then while they still cannot remeber the events, they have the knowledge gained by them, tho they cannot say where they aquired this knowledge.
A 2nd example would be a study where participants learned geography in a game, one group wasnt allowed to sleep before taking a timed test to get around between a series of locations, the other group was. The group that didn't sleep took about 15% longer and accessed a different area of their brain to complete the task.

Sure, I'd like to skip sleep, but what effect would that have on my ability to process new knowledge

- Science
- posted on Sep 23, 07

I have heard of people that after a brain injury could not sleep for the rest of their lives. There is also a disorder that stops people from being able to sleep. People born with the rare genetic disorder Morvan’s fibrillary chorea or Morvan's syndrome can go without sleep for several months at a time. Michel Jouvet and his colleagues in Lyon, France, studied a 27-year-old man and found he had virtually no sleep over a period of several months. During that time he did not feel sleepy or tired and did not show any disorders of mood, memory, or anxiety. Nevertheless, nearly every night between 9:00 and 11:00 p.m., he experienced a 20 to 60-minute period of auditory, visual, olfactory, and somesthetic (sense of touch) hallucinations, as well as pain and vasoconstriction in his fingers and toes.[12] In recent investigations, Morvan's syndrome has been attributed to serum antibodies directed against specific potassium (K+) channels in cell and nerve membranes.

- Science
- posted on Sep 30, 07

I find this very interesting. I have myself experienced some of the things he mentions in the interview when I've had to stay awake due school work, I feel tired at the beginning, it's difficult to keep reading, and keep focused, but then you go to school without having slept and it's amazing, I've thought, why don't I feel that tired? after some time, because the first hours of trying to get back to normal activities I've felt dizzy, shaking, nervous, but then it goes fine. My question is, how worthy is it to loose some functonal hours (the weak points)to eventually get the improvement? if we can be "completely functional" every day by sleeping the normal hours at the normal schedule. Is it the brain development? then, how do we really take advantage if the whole society works with a set up schedule, what do you then if your job is not as flexible, just to set an example.

- Science
- posted on Oct 07, 07

I stayed awake for 7days and nights once, by the end of the week it felt the same as when you take more than the perscribed dose of valium, i spent most the time on the internet and would forget what i was typing and couldnt play games as good, reaction times to stuff was dismal, its not a practical way of living, although i was sleepy it definatly felt as though i could have stayed awake forever, when i finaly went to go bed i tripped out an felt an saw some odd thing trying to drag me off my bed he seemed real angry!! lol was the oddest experiance i ever had

- Science
- posted on Nov 03, 07
Tony Wright

For anyone interested there is an interview covering some of the basic theory at

- Science
- posted on Jan 17, 08
a student

i feel bad for not reading the whole thing but i just have to get to the point. how do you change brain hemispheres?

- Science
- posted on Jun 24, 08
anu yadav

Because of this sleep deprivation, you said that you were not able to do work on your PC.
Isn't this sleep deprivation taking you away from your normal or best say in an imaginary world. So what's the point in that won't it be better to take a 5 hour sleep and do everything?

- Science
- posted on Jun 29, 08

The reduction in function for a range of tasks such as reading or writing in a typical fashion i.e. sequentially a few words at a time is what I would expect as these tasks are very much the domain of the left brain and it does not easily relinquish control of the things it can do (however inefficiently). Hand in hand with these areas of dysfunction comes an improvement in things like ability to see context or complex patterns. Push things far enough and the dysfunction in some areas gives way to a very different level of ability. So a slowly reducing ability to read normally one word after another can eventually be replaced by an ability to read sections of text simultaneously. I’m not suggesting it’s a remotely practical tool for accessing those kinds of improvements rather it demonstrates a paradox that needs explaining.

- Science
- posted on Jul 03, 08

Wow..... Wtf? When I stay up for more then 5 days it seems like I can still talk hmmm yeah I know why, because my left hemisphere does NOT shut down. Same as everyone else, because this is BS!

- Science
- posted on Aug 06, 08

Hi Tony

sychronicity brings me to this page...your work seems incredibly interesting. I have yet to purchase your book although have heard about you from Holly s website and have intentions of doing so as i am sure it will be an inspiration to my own mastery process.

coming from a spiritual side of knowing...i know absolutly anything is possible and our self mastery is infanite as we move into higher vibrations of experience if that is our desire and choice.

I am currently reading ,Living in the Heart, by Drunvalo Melchizedek. In this he is talking about his encounters with other tribes and their expanded consciousness and mastery... in one of the encounters he was told that if one stands in a dark room for 9 days with no food or sleep you will automatically go into the sacred space of the heart... a place of all knowing and god connection where you have conscious cocreation from the heart connected to the mind. i wonder if you have heard of his amazing work and thought i would share it with you as you also seem to be exploring the power of human potential...

much love

- Science
- posted on Aug 08, 08

I have recently made the whole manuscript available for review

Re talking after 5 days and B.S., no claim has been made that any significant change is likely/guaranteed after 5 days awake. The experiments I conducted combined several unusual factors, after more than 100 long periods without sleep between 1995 and 1998 I had induced 3 brief periods of a wholly different sense of self totalling perhaps 30-40 minutes. However those 30-40 minutes and further brief experiences since honing the approaches have easily provided the motivation to continue as everything else loses any relevance.

- Science
- posted on Dec 11, 08

yeah, not buying it...I would like some true empirical evidence...thanks...

- Science
- posted on Feb 26, 09

Not sure what you mean?
"yeah, not buying it...I would like some true empirical evidence...thanks..."
if you mean empirical data re the species wide neuro-degenerative and associated insanity I have proposed I agree, I would say there is evidence however a research initiative to test and eliminate such a possibility is one of my objectives. Equally I would like some true empirical evidence that humanity is not suffering from a neurological condition, presuming our brain is functional is simply ‘bad science’ for latest updates

- Science
- posted on Mar 12, 09

I stumbled across this article after having been up for 66h 40m (and counting) for work. I started a company shortly after college, and have probably been doing at least one all-nighter or more per week for the last 5 years.

That said, my motive is purely for work (more hours in the day == more money), and I never thought of it as something that can go on past a few days. However, the theory relating to rhythms makes perfect sense to me. For instance, my 'struggle point' is 8am to 10:30am each morning. If I am doing an all-nighter (consecutive or not), I really and truly only get to the point where I have trouble fighting the sleep-monster between the times above. 11am hits and my second wind almost instantly comes back.

I especially liked how Tony mentioned that reading a computer screen was tough--because about 1 paragraph before I read that note, the page on my monitor started looking like it had an ocean-ripple effect for me. I am a programmer by trade, so my 50+ hour sessions are almost 100% sitting (or standing) in front of my laptop. I've always suspected that the screens are why I get the eye-burn so quickly--and why I never naturally try to go much past the 60/70h point. However, given the notes on the left hemisphere's use for communication skills, I'm beginning to wonder how long I could go if I avoided talking and reading during the day.

Side note... any thoughts on switching your natural left/right hand dominance during an extended sleepless session? I was thinking as I read this that going from being right-dominant to using your left hand for things like a fork or holding a glass of water might be a fun little addition to the mix of non-fatiguing activity.

At any rate. Great post--but I've got to bet back to work ;)

- Science
- posted on Jul 02, 09

Hi Ryan, re communication, the theory is that with appropriate preparation a greater ability to communicate eventually emerges. Re switching handedness, if you haven’t read the book check out the Manchester Metropolitan University 5 day sleep deprivation experiment in the sleep related section of

I'm currently planning a symposium to invite discussion on the issues raised by the theory outlined in ‘Left in the Dark’

- Science
- posted on Aug 29, 09

Surprisingly I can really associate with this experiment, though the longest I'd been without sleep is about 5-6 days. I went through very similar experiences, though most I didn't notice as being more than normal, till the last day or so. It was a bit of an outer body experience at that point and everything seemed to run a bit faster. I do this all the time naturally as I just don't sleep that well ever, nor do I feel sleepy much.

- Science
- posted on Jul 13, 10

I've notice that drawing is much better late in night, maybe related to the left side shuting down?
Now Im medicating for Wolff-parkinsom-white syndrome and one of the bad side of the medication is 'altered sleep'
I sleep much less than before, but also get tired much faster. If I go to sleep at 10PM I will wake up at 6AM, Then I need to sleep 2 hours in the day or I'll get very tired at 6PM and wake up at 11PM, really annoying.

Im wondering... If I am so tired that Im only thinking to go to sleep (But the sun is still there!) and start drawing, could I switch the brain sides that way, estimulating the right hemisphere? (Silly question, I know)
Or maybe drawing upside down, poor left hemisphere can't deal with that even full-charged :P

- Science
- posted on Apr 25, 11

So, great, someone can maintain the brainpower to stay awake for extended periods, but you need sleep to regenerate and repair your body. There's a reason we do it. I also just believe some of the idea that we're holding back our brain is a prevarication. The most important part of our ancient diets was meat and that is the protein that gave humans the cognitive abilities we have. But I guess physical evidence isn't important to the metaphysical, new age crowd.

- Science
- posted on Oct 16, 11

Dear Tony

I am fascinated by this, I also noticed that you mentioned elsewhere about diet. I understand its fruits but what about protein and all the importance associated with that?


- Science
- posted on Jun 26, 13
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- Science
- posted on Jun 27, 13
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Article by Adam Conner-Simons

Adam Conner-Simons is a freelance journalist in Boston.

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